How to play
Klondike solitaire has seven tableau columns.
The first starts with one card, the second with two cards, and so on to the seventh, which starts with seven cards.
There are four foundations, which start off empty.
The remaining cards can be dealt one at a time into the discard pile.
As they become available, the four aces can be played onto the foundations.
Cards of the same suit may be played on each ace in ascending order, from low (2) to high (king).
On the tableau, cards are played in descending order, alternating colors.
If a column in the tableau is emptied, any visible king can be moved to fill that space.
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There are four different types of stacks in klondike solitaire. They are:
After gold was found in Rabbit Creek in north-western Canada in 1896, the Klondike stampede saw an estimated 100,000 prospectors trying to reach the gold fields.
Only around 40,000 actually did, and only 4000 of those managed to get some gold.
Boom towns appeared along the route to accommodate the prospectors. Dawson City was founded where the Klondike and the Yukon River meet. In 1896 it housed 500 residents. By the summer of 1898 there were 30,000.
The rush for gold was ended in 1899 when prospectors moved on to the next big thing at Nome, Alaska. When the first census was taken in 1901 the population had declined to 9,000.
It's a bit of a mystery where solitaire actually comes from. Several games are of French origin, such as La Belle Lucie, Le Cadran, La Nivernaise, Le Loi Salique. But that doesn't necessarily mean it started in France. It could just as likely have its roots in Germany or Scandinavia. It has its earliest written appearance in the 1783 edition of the German book of games, Das neue Königliche L'Hombre-Spiel, where it is referred to as Patiencespiel. It was described as a competitive card game where players would take turns to play with separate decks of cards. Playing by one's self probably came out of people enjoying practicing for competitive games.
Worldwide, the game has many names. In Britain, it is still often called Patience. In modern France, the game is more often called réussite, which means success. Other languages, such as Norwegian and Danish often use the word Kabal, which means secret knowledge, to describe these games. The outcome of a game could possibly have been thought to be a type of fortune telling.
The first collection of solitaire card games in the English language was written by Lady Adelaide Cadogan with her book of Illustrated Games of Patience published in 1870. Before this, there had been no literature about it, not even in such books as Abbe Bellecour's Academie des Jeux (1674), Charles Cotton's The Compleat Gamester (1674), and Bohn's Handbook of Games (1850), all of which are used as reference on card games.
It is said that Napoleon played solitaire during his exile. Many games bare his name or the name of the island he was exiled to: St. Helena, Napoleon's Square, Little Napoleon. However, Napoleon enjoyed the more popular games of the day such as Whist, Vingt-Un and Piquet, so whether he played those solitaire games or actually invented them is unclear.
Franklin D. Roosevelt was another well known patience players. The game of Roosevelt was named after him although his favorite solitaire game was Spider solitaire.
In the 1980s, personal computers made solitaire more popular. Microsoft has included the game as part of the Windows operating system since 1990. Players don't need to shuffle and deal the cards for each and every hand making game play more enjoyable. Whether played on the latest computer or by hand, it is an ideal mind exercise and stress reliever, more popular now than ever before.